Hatha Yoga (S): Forceful Practice. Hatha yoga is a system of physical and mental exercise developed in ancient times as a means of preparing the body and mind for meditation. See: kundalini, nadi, yoga.

Hayagriva (S): Tibetan: rta mgrin One of the Great Protectors, and one of the most popular yidams among the Gelug sect. A manifestation of Avalokiteshvara, his imagery combines the Hindu god Visnu and the savior horse Balaha Hayagriva. Practicing on Hayagriva is one of the five Classes of Means for Attainment of Pristine Cognition. One of four gate keepers, Hayagriva is a Tantric deity always depicted with a horse's head within his flaming hair. There are Three Neighs of Hayagriva (rta mgrin gyi rta skad thengs gsum): [the continuum of ground, path and result ] or alternatively 1) the neigh which arouses the world to the unborn identity of samsara and nirvana 2) the neigh which offers animate and inanimate worlds as a feast offering to repay karmic debts {gsod} and 3) the neigh which then enlists the support of beings and binds them under an oath of allegiance. Black Hayagriva is an extremely wrathful aspect of Buddha Amitabha and Red Hayagriva is Avalokiteshvara in wrathful form.

Heart Sutra: Sanskrit: Prajnaparamita Sutra. The Teaching on the Heart of the Perfection of Wisdom. This short sutra is the extremely concise statement of the doctrine of Emptiness, regarded as the heart or essence of the vast Prajnaparamita (Perfection of Wisdom) Literature. Associated with the Second Turning of the Wheel, this sutra is primarily delivered by the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva Avalokitesvara and occurs in the presence of the Buddha on Vulture Peak. In many Buddhist traditions, the sutra is chanted regularly.

Heruka: Buddha Heruka is a manifestation of Buddhas enlightened compassion, and thus represents our ultimate nature. A heruka is a male deity of meditation in higher tantra yoga. By relying upon heruka, beings can swiftly attain a pure selfless joy and bring true happiness and peace to others. To practice the sublime visualizations of the Heruka body mandala will gradually transform our ordinary world and experiences into the transcendental reality of a fully enlightened Buddha. The completion stage practices of Heruka lead to the supreme bliss of full enlightenment in this lifetime.

Hevajra (S): A yidam of lightning (vajra) considered to represent the eternal. In Tantric Buddhism, the fearful aspect of Vajrasattva. Favored by the Tibetan Sakya school.


Hinduism: India's indigenous religious and cultural system, followed today by nearly a billion adherents, mostly in India, but with large populations in many other countries. Also called Sanatana Dharma, "eternal religion" and Vaidika Dharma, "religion of the Vedas." Hinduism is the world's oldest religion and encompasses philosophies ranging from pluralistic theism to absolute monism. It is a family of myriad faiths with four main denominations: Saivism, Vaishnavism, Shaktism and Smartism. These four hold such divergent beliefs that each is a complete and independent religion. Yet they share a vast heritage of culture and belief in karma, dharma, reincarnation, all-pervasive Divinity, temple worship, sacraments, manifold Deities, the guru-shishya tradition and a reliance on the Vedas as scriptural authority.

Hinayana (S): The little vehicle. One of the three "vehicles" of Buddhism; the vehicle, or way of the Arhat. In Tibetan tradition, the name identifies an incomplete quest for a purely personal liberation from samsara. Vajrayana practitioners study the entire Hinayana teachings, while simulataneously learning Mahayana and tantric practices.

HUM (S): Tibetan: Hung (pronounced as in hoong). Mantric syllable (S. bija, or seed syllable) known as the seal of the "vajra mind" of all buddhas, symbolizing the integration of the universal, absolute and divine within the particular individual, the timeless in the manifest moment. This one syllable mantra is regarded as the quintessence of all Buddhas. It symbolizes integration of the individual with the universal, absolute.

Hundred Syllable Mantra: Sanskrit mantra of Vajrasattva to remove klesas and karmic hindrances. Recitation of this mantra 100,000 times is one of the four preliminary practices, or Ngondro in all Vajrayana lineages.

Hwa-shang: Buddhist influences in Tibet came from India but also from other places, like China. By the time of King Trisong Deutsen, it is said that the discussion between 'gradual' and 'sudden' approaches to awakening came to a head in a famous debate held at Samye Monastery. The Indian viewpoint was expressed by Kamalasila who held a gradualist approach to Enlightenment; whereas the Chinese tradition was presented by a monk called Hwa Shang Mahayana who put forth a view from the Ch'an teachings pointing to a more sudden form of enlightenment. Whether on the basis of the merits of their arguments or because of underlying social and political considerations, Kamalasila was declared the victor and Hwa-shang was banished. This did not end these kinds of teachings; in fact similar ideas occur among the Nyingmapa in their Dzogchen teachings. The Ancient Ones may never have dismissed the views of the Chinese sage. These teachings flourished among the Ch'an schools during China's T'ang dynasty.