In case one should think that this is all there is to these eleven positive factors, one should know that the eleven, beginning with confidence-trust, are said to be wholesome by their very nature in view of the fivefold classification of the positive:
1. Wholesome by its very natureThey are spoken of in this way because they originate as the wholesome by just being there, independent of other factors such as causative circumstances. Therefore, it is in this context that they are explained as the eleven primary positive factors.
2. Wholesome by being related
3. Wholesome by being related to that which follows
4. Wholesome by inspiring
5. Wholesome in the ultimate sense
These positive factors that have been explained can be divided according to the occasion in which they occur:
1. Wholesome by being inborn'Wholesome by being inborn', to give an example, is confidence-trust which has been set up by the latent potentialities that have come from a previous life independent of what one does about it in this life.
2. Wholesome by means of involvement
3. Wholesome by means of what has been done
4. Wholesome by being involved with benefiting
5. Wholesome by leaving out nothing
6. Wholesome by being a counteragent
7. Wholesome by being in a state of rest
8. Wholesome by being in a similar to the cause
1. To rely on spiritual friends in this life'Wholesome by means of what has been done', for instance, are special bright pure actions that make one attain heaven or the good things in life.
2. To listen to the teachings of the Buddha
3. To pay proper attention
4. To realize what is conducive to the attainment of nirvana.
When one becomes separated from cupidity-attachment'Wholesome by being similar to the 'cause' means the five higher kinds of insight that come with the attainment of the truth of cessation (of frustrations) and the ten powers**(of a Buddha).
And has overcome evil actions by positive acts.
He becomes immediately adorned with the Supreme
And this is called 'having come to rest'.
There is no foundation for considering the wholesome things as entities.
Unwholesome factors are explained in the same manner as being fivefold:
1. Unwholesome by its very natureThe first is, in general, the basic and proximate factors of (emotional) instability.
2. Unwholesome by being related
3. Unwholesome by being related to that which follows
4. Unwholesome by inspiring
5. Unwholesome in the ultimate sense
1. Unwholesome by being inborn'Unwholesome by being inborn' is exemplified by the impulse to kill, which comes through tendencies implanted in a previous life. There may be a point in making a distinction between the actual act and intention, but even though young people nowadays do not consider this division between good and evil as something very important, it is stated that when one practices the stages as indicated in the byang chub lam rim it is very important to make this distinction. Hence, without quibbling about words, one must turn the mind inward and think about it.
2. Unwholesome by means of involvement
3. Unwholesome by what has been done
4. Unwholesome by harming
5. Unwholesome by leaving out nothing
6. Unwholesome by things not conducive to good things
7. Unwholesome by being destructive
'Unwholesome by means of involvement' is, for instance, evil behavior which comes from associating with evil friends, listening to religious freaks, and indulging in sloppy thinking.
'Unwholesome by what has been done' is, for instance, making bloody sacrifices to idols by following those who have been deceived by evil friends in the belief that harming is a religious activity.
'Unwholesome by harming' is, for instance, to harm sentient beings by body, speech and mind.
'Unwholesome by leaving out nothing' is, for instance, activity which sets out on a course and makes certain that there is nothing left but to bestow only painful results.
'Unwholesome by things not conducive to good things' are, for instance, the evil views that obstruct the birth of a path which does not collapse.
'Unwholesome by being destructive' are, for instance, those evil views that destroy everything conducive to that which is wholesome.
'Indeterminate' also covers the range from what is indeterminate in itself to what is indeterminate by being similar to its cause. Moreover, in the positive and negative, there is that which seems to be positive but it is not and that which seems to be negative but is not; however, it would be going too far to put it all down here. If you wish to know it thoroughly, then look them up in the Abhidharma texts.
How foolish is the person who indulges in meaningless activitiesThese few lines are meant to summarize what has been said so far.
And fatigues himself like one who sifts the grain from the chaff
When he rejects the seven jewels which grant all superior things in this life and the next
After he has obtained or met them.
The eye of intelligence which distinguishes the path from that which is not
Is blinded by the foul waters of the fools and idiots.
To claim that one can walk the path and scale the spiritual levels by using an artificial staff
That resembles the dharma is too ridiculous for words.
Oh friends with intelligence and sustained interest,
If you want to search for the jewel that elevates your mind to the two positive qualities,
Then follow Tsong kha pa, the supreme Bodhisattva, and
Dive deep into the ocean of the Buddha's words which is like a Wish-fulfilling Gem.