Ngari Panchen Pema Wangyal 1487-1542

An incarnation of Trisong Deutsen, born in present day Mustang, taught by his father, the leading Vinaya master of his day, wrote "The Treatise That Ascertains Three Vows (Perfect Conduct)." Studied with Sakya masters. By 20 he had already mastered Logic, Madhyamika and Prajnaparamita. Studied in Kathmandu with Tibetan and Newari masters. At 38 he was moved to restore the teachings in central Tibet, went to Lhasa where he had visions and discovered termas at Samye.

Mikyo Dorje, Karmapa VIII 1507-1554

It is told that he was discovered shortly after birth, when he uttered the title "Karmapa." Believed to have been the Guru Rinpoche of the former Buddha Dipamkara and, in general, the activity-aspect of all thousand Buddhas of our universe. Mikyo Dorje was one of the most renowned of the Karmapas, being a powerful meditation master, a prolific scholar and author. His works represent the zenith of the Middle Way school of mahayana Buddhism, and is said to offer a valuable antidote for misunderstandings of voidness. He was also a visionary artist, to whom we owe the Karma Gadri style of thangka painting -- a very spacious, transparent and meditative style. He composed one of the main devotional practices of the Kagyu school, the Four-Session Guru Yoga. He had been invited to China when quite young, but declined, knowing that the emperor would be dead by the time of his arrival. His refusal offended the envoys carrying the invitation, who returned to China only to find that his prescience was correct. The emperor had died.

Rigdzin Jatsön Nyingpo 1585-1656

Born in Kongpo, an incarnation of Myang Ting-nge-'dzin, one of the disciples of Padmasambhava who attained the untainted Body of Light. While young he studied traditional arts and sciences, particularly medicine. He practiced the Nyingma and Sarma traditions. At 18 he went into retreat for 17 years, began discovering terma at 35, many in public, inspiring thousands of people. Although living as a monk, he had amazing supernormal powers.

Tsele Natsok Rangdrol 1608

Great yogi of the Drukpa Kagyu and Nyingma lineages; a Mahamudra and Dzogchen adept, reincarnation of Milarepa and the Tibetan translator Vairochana, he practiced in the caves and cliffs of the Tsib-ri mountains near Tingri.

Born in the snowy land of Tibet, in the 17th century, he was a most illustrious Buddhist master and poet, excelling in both scholarship and accomplishment. He grew learned in Sutra and the Tantras of both Nying-ma and gSar-ma schools. He completely comprehended all the teachings of the eight great practice lineages of Tibet. His character resembled that of Dza Paltrul in Tibet and Shantideva in India. His mind was gentle and disciplined and he displayed a profound sense of humility. He was also adept at exposing the faults hidden deep in others, and skilled in giving advice to remedy these faults. His works are regarded as outstanding guides to the philosophical perspective of the Vajrayana. His expositions of Mahamudra and rDzogs-chen are among his greatest works.

His Holiness Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche, on several occasions stated that people who harbor no ambition to become a great scholar, but who want to focus on truly realizing the view in this life and sincerely wish to reach the ultimate point of training should study just a few of the writings of Tsele Natsok Rangdrol, including his teachings on the bardo, Mahamudra, and the Great Perfection. If they study and reflect correctly on his teachings, they will find the pith instructions that are the very heart of the 84,000 sections of the Dharma are all complete within these.

1600 – 1800 The Tibetan canon is printed and translated into Mongolian. The Ch’ing emperors support the dharma and heavily endow Mongolian monasteries. The Fourth Dalai Lama is a Mongol and Mongolian ties with the Gelug school are strengthened. After crushing the rival Kadampa school, the Fifth Dalai Lama gains political control of Tibet. Soon after, the Gelugs destroy the Jonang order, taking over its monasteries and burning its texts and treatises. Political and cultural unrest seize Japan, many of its monasteries form private armies. Numerous monasteries are destroyed, especially among the Shingon and Tendai orders.

Dzogchen Pema Rigdzin 1625-1697

Incarnation of Kukkuraja and Vimalamitra, disciple of Karma Chagmed, nephew of Kunzang Sherab, receive teachings from Dud-'dul Dorje and was a chief lineage holder, worked to restore Samye, took teachings from the Fifth Dalai Lama and at his request, returned to Kham and established what was to become Dzogchen Monastery.

Dud-'dul Dorje 1615-1672

Born in the Dergé district of Dokam, studied medicine with his father as a young man, studied with Sakyapa and Dzogchen masters. Recieving prophecy that he would reveal treasure inspired him to practice Ratna Lingpa's phurba teachings intensively. Took a consort and began discovering treasure at 29. Through an arrangement by Karma Chagmed, he made an auspicious connection with Mingyur Dorje. Opened the hidden valley of Pema-ko to pilgrims; both Padmasambhava and Gampopa had practiced here.

Kunzang Sherab 1636-1699

At the age of 30, arrived at the newly built Palyul Monastery to assume his position as the first throne holder of the Palyul lineage. He was greatly assisted by his sister, the Tibetan saint Genyenma Ahkon Lhamo, whose incarnation was discovered in North American in the late 20th century. In 1987, Jetsunma Tulku Akhon Lhamo traveled from Maryland (United States) to Byalkuppe, India, where she was formally recognized H.H. Pema Norbu Rinpoche and H.H. Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche.

Orgyen Terdak Lingpa c.1640-1714

Born Minling Terchen Gyurme at Dargye Choling monastery in Dranang, central Tibet. An incarnation of Vairocana, he began his religious training at four, attained realization at nine, and discovered his first terma at 17. A year earlier he became a disciple of the Fifth Dalai Lama, later to become one of his teachers. In this way a strong spiritual tie developed between them. It is said that once while giving His Holiness esoteric initiation, flowers fell from the heavens, and upon another occasion, was healed on advice of His Holiness to take a consort. He died amid auspicious signs at 68. Uniting kama and terma lineages, he revitalized and restored Nyingma teachings to their original prominence.

Minling Terchen Gyurmed Dorjee, also known as Terdak Lingpa was born in the year 1646 at Dargye Choling monastary in Dranang, Central Tibet, to Sangdag Trinley Lhundup and Ladzin Yangchen Dolma amidst auspicious omens of earthquakes and rainbows. His parents were spiritual, his father a great tantric adept. Just before he was born his father dreamt of a naked red lady who offered him a handful of Hri mantric syllables, and his mother dreamed the belle of their village made an offering of a crystal stupa. He was named Kunga Ngodup Rinchen Wangi Gyalpo. He was an unusual boy, acting as a teacher giving sermons to other boys, making sure they listened. At times he made stupas, and images out of clay and sometimes stayed alone to meditate and chant prayers. He began training at four, under his father. He showed remarkable signs of success even at that early age. At nine he took lay ordination and received further training in meditation, rituals, and rites of the Nyingma, with particular emphasis on Dzogchen. He enterd into a three month retreat and received visions of Guru Rinpoche giving initiation to him; other visions symbolized his profound understanding of seeing all worldly and transworldly phenomena as being illusory in nature.

Between the age of fifteen and his early twenties he had memorized and recieved innumerable teachings and empowerments. At twenty three he met the great Fifth Dalai Lama and recieved the hair cutting ceremony , and on the advice of his father took vows of a full fledged layman, including the pratimoksha, Bodhisattva, & Tantric traditions. This coincided with the bringing of the self-arisen image of Arya Avalokiteshvara of Kyirong to the palace of the Dalai Lama, which was seen as an auspicious omen. The Fifth Dalai Lama offered him a special hat made of brocade. Following this he recieved transmission and teachings. Of particular importance was the transmission of the Great Sealed Secrets cycle of teachings, comprised of the Dalai Lamas visionary text, treasure teachings, and supplementary notes concerning extremely secret levels of practice.

He then travelled studying scripture and meditation at various monastaries. After intensive study he went into solitary retreat for a year and ten days, where he had numerous experiences and visions of a most profound nature receiving instructions from various Great masters such as Padmasambhava, Vimalamitra,Vairocana, Yeshe Tsogyal, Nyang ral Nyima Odzer and Longchenpa. During this retreat he unearthed many treasure text, articles and images. As soon as he came out of retreat, he combined Mahamudra and Dzogchen practices. While giving esoteric initiations and teachings to the Fifth Dalai Lama at Potala, to everyone's surprise flowers actually fell from heaven. He gave several transmissions and around two hundred major initiations to the Dalai Lama, in this way creating a strong spiritual tie between them. When the Dalai Lama fell sick, Terdak Lingpa performed grand religious services and rituals to expel hindrances, and through his power of ritual, his good friend fully recovered. At thirty three Terdak Lingpa became seriously ill and on the advice of the Dalai Lama he accepted a consort. This enhanced his realizations and proved beneficial to his disciples and the doctrine. His first wife without a child, while his second wife bore three sons who became great practicioners and leading disciples. He taught disciples from all over Tibet, but his heart student was his own brother, Lo-chen Dharmasri .Together with Lochen Dharmasri, Terdak Lingpa collected the text of the kama and compiled the Nyingma sadhanas, adding a written guide for each one to clarity the details of practice. He wrote extensive commentarieson root text of the Maha, Anu, and Atiyoga Tantras. To ensure the preservation of important texts, he directed the carving and printing of the Kagyur as well as many Nyingma, commentaries and other texts. Terdak Lingpas efforts restored the Nyingma teachings to their original prominence and united the Kama and Terma traditions. In 1676 he founded and then supported the monastary of Orgyen Mindroling, which has remained one of the six major Nyingma centers down to the present time. Terdak Lingpa was known for his generosity. Whatever material offerings he collected he donated to the Mindroling. Because of his generosity the three hundred monks there were never in need. After he had made many blocks for printing scriptures, and books, and moulded figures of various buddhist deities in the first month of the year 1714, when he was nearing sixty-eight, he fell ill, and after leaving proper instructions, advice and prophecies, passed away on the second of the second month. That morning he first said, "It is necessary to go seven steps to the east!" and then he spoke this verse:

"Appearance, sound, and awareness
are the nature of deity , mantra, and dharmakaya,
The pervasive kaya and wisdom display of the Buddhas.
May practitioners of the profound and secret Great Perfection remain inseperable
from the innermost, one-taste awareness of wisdom mind."

Suddenly, his hands performed the gesture of beating the hand drum and ringing the bell, and his eyes were wide open. In this way Dakinis invited him to the pure realm of the Buddha. The disciples gathered around him in agony & whiffed the smell of camphor, hearing the sound of the bell and hand drum in the surrounding.

The era of the Minling brothers marks a period of intense creativity and expansion of the Ancient School. Dorje-dra, Mindroling, Palyul, and Dzogchen monastaries were founded, the texts of the Kama were preserved, and the discoveries of tertons brought forth still new treasures.This period also marks the beginning of the regime of the Dalai Lamas in central Tibet.With the support of the Mongols, the influence of the Fifth Dali Lama, who was both master and disciple of Nyingma lamas, encompassed not only the spiritual realms but also the temporal. A cultural renaisssance blossomed, with the founding of the Potala, the building of roads, bridges, and promotion of the arts and sciences and Sanskrit studies. Widely respected throughout Asia, the Great Fifth supported trade and international relations with India, Kashmir, China and Mongolia.

"The Prayer of Aspiration called Dorje Gyadud" by Orgyen Terdak Lingpa
Gurus and hosts of wishing gods please listen to me! The virtue of my diligent practice here today and all that I collect in the three times, and the virtue I have-the entire sum of it I dedicate to the unsurpassable great Enlightenment! From this time on until the heart of Enlightenment is gained, may we born in good families, with clear intellect free of pride, and with great compassion may we have devotion to our Gurus. We must truly stay in the glorious Vajrayana. Being ripened by initiation may we keep fully our Tantric vows, complete the practices and mantra recitations of the developing and perfecting systems. Then, going without difficulty to the stage of the Vidyadharas, may we easily gain supreme and ordinary siddhis. With whatever is seen as being complete in the chakra of Mayajala, and all sounds as inexpressible mantra’s sound, the movements of mind are one’s own uncompounded awareness - the great ever present happiness must be really experienced. With lost vows, thoughts and obscurations being puriifed in their own place without need of discarding, we must come full with the realization of the inseperability of the inner, outer and secret. And with whatever arises being self liberating in Samantabhadra’s vast expanse,the states of woe must be upturned and emptied and samsara and nirvana become equal. With kaya and realm complete in the great bindu, and the great Samaya pure without the characteristics of rejection and acceptance, The great all encompassing vastness free from the knots of hope and fear, may the Great Perfection Dharmakaya be realized. The blessings of the three lineages dwell in the heart. Our minds coming full by the secret path of Mayajala, by the effortlesly arising four kinds of activity, the numberless wanderers in samsara must be freed! With the circles of the peaceful and wrathful emanations giving prediction, and the dakinis protecting us as their children, and the Dharma-protectors and Guardians removing all obstacles, all the wishes we have must be fulfilled! With the Jina’s doctrines spreading vastly, and all the plans desired by the Doctrine holders coming full, all the difficult situations of all beings without exception must be pacified and all good things must be gained according to our desires!

Minling Lochen Dharmashri c. 1654 - 1718

Collected ancient Nyingma Kama texts with Orgyen Terdag Lingpa and transmitted the Prajnaparamita teachings. Khenpo of Mindrol Ling monastery.

Karma Chagmed 1613-1678

Reincarnation of Mikyo Dorje, Karmapa VIII, his father taught him Nyingma teachings as a youth. Root guru and tutor of the prodigy Migyur Dorje. Teacher of Pema Rigdzin, the founder of Dzogchen monastery, and Kunzang Sherab, founder of Palyul.

The follolwing biographical data about Karma Chagmey the First is extracted from Khetsun Sangpo's Biographical Dictionary of Tibet and Tibetan Buddhism, Vol VII-

Karma Chagmey was taught to meditate at the age of five by his own father. From that time one he strove to always remain in undistracted mindfulness.

At the age of 12 he received empowerment from Situ Rinpoche and thereafter stayed in recitation retreat. From his father he received all the instructions of sadhana according to the Nyingma system. When later he presented his understanding to Trungpa Kunga Namgyal (1555-1628) he was given the pointing out transmission. As advised by Trungpa Rinpoche, he entered the monastery of Sadam.

At one point he visited Tsurphu and met the tenth Karmapa and also the Sixth Sharmapa, Chokyi Wangchuk (1584-1630), who allowed him to remain there. He studied at Tsurphu the Five Treatises of Maitreya as well as the Hevajra Tantra and the Third Karmapa's explanation of Vajrayana practice, Sabmo Nangdon. During this time he concentrated on the sadhanas of White Manjushri and became renowned as being invincible in debate. Once when he made supplications at the tomb of the Sixth Sharmapa, the wisdom of Mahamudra dawned in his mind.

Later on at Nedo, he spent a long time in retreat. In a vision of Sharmapa Chokyi Wangchuk, he was entrusted with the teachings of Mahamudra. Moreover, he was given the prediction that by devoting his life completely to practice, he would be able to tremendously help those essential teachings.

He had numerous visions of his yidam. The protectors of the Dharma offered themselves to him as servants. All the signs and experiences accompanying his progress through the paths and bhumis appeared and he was endowed with the splendor of clairvoyance and miraculous powers. During his lifetime, he reached the level of realization in Mahamudra called 'greater one taste.'

There were many people who realized the natural state simply through receiving empowerment, instructions or a letter of advice from him.

At the age of 64 Karma Chagmey passed away and went to the Realm of Lotus Light, the pure land of Padmasambhava. At the cremation ceremony, rainbow lights appeared and a gentle rain drizzled. In his ashes were found several naturally formed images and numerous relic-pills.

Nam-Chö Migyur Dorje 1645-1667

Born in Ngom. As a child he recalled over 200 past lives and had visions. After meeting with the blessings of Karma Chagmed, he received the revelations known as Nam-cho (sky teachings) from his 12th -22nd year. The Profound lineage of Pure Vision originates with Terton Migyur Dorje's Nam Cho Great Perfection revelations, which were transmitted directly to Kunzang Sherab.

Changchub Dorje, The 12th Karmapa 1703 – 1732

Changchub Dorje was born at Chile Chakhor in the Derge province of eastern Tibet. Legend has it that the Shamarpa Paichen Chokyi Dondrub heard about a remarkable child, and sent a party to investigate. His envoys brought the child to Karma Gon to meet the Shamarpa, who recognized him as the 12th Karmapa. The two were to spend the rest of their lives together, dying within two days of one another. Changchub Dorje studied under many illustrious masters as a young child. He gave profound Kagyu teachings to the famous Nyingma master of Katok monastery, who in turn shared his Nyingma teachings.

Changchub Dorje and the Sharmapa gave Kagyu transmission to the 8th Situpa, and named him lineage holder. The young Situpa, who impressed Indian Buddhist scholars with his erudition, became a master of languages and went on to be one of Asia's greatest scholars of all time. Changchub Dorje and the Sharmapa, accompanied by the Situpa, Shamar Rinpoche and Gyaltsab Rinpoche, traveled and taught in Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan and India. In India, Changchub Dorje was credited with stopping a raging epidemic and ending a serious drought.

Returning to Tibet, the Karmapa accepted an invitation to China, and set out with the Shamarpa. However, foreseeing difficult political times and realizing the need to leave his body, the Karmapa sent the Tai Situpa a letter with details of his next incarnation. Shortly thereafter he succumbed to smallpox, as did the Shamarpa, two days later.

Source: "The Garland of Moon Water Crystal," by Chökyi Jungne and Belo Tsewang Künkhyab.

Rigdzin Jigme Lingpa 1729-1798

Great terton who, since childhood, experienced visions, and whose mind was detached from worldly enjoyments. Born in a village in Chongye Valley of Southern Tibet, he enjoyed a spontaneous devotion to Guru Rinpoche and innate compassion for all living things, especially animals. Although his parents came from significant families, they were simple people, which he acknowledged as a blessing because he was allowed to undertake a religious life instead of being forced into social obligations.His extraordinary compassion, courage and intelligence led him to enter Palri Monastery at the age of six, quickly mastering grammar, logic, astrology, poetry, history, medicine, and many scriptures of sutra and tantra. He was born learned as the result of awakening the wisdom realization in himself and felt no need to have a master or study any intellectual subject in detail. Through these accomplishments the qualities and disposition of a terton were becoming evident, which led to his intimate relationship as an intimate disciple of Longchenpa and spiritually initiated the Rimé (Non-Sectarian) movement which was to flourish in the following century.

At thirteen he met the great Terton Rigdzin Thukchok Dorje and instantly experienced a strong devotion that awakened his wisdom mind. From the terton he received transmissions and instructions on Mahamudra
and other teachings. Thukchok Dorje became his root teacher, and he received blessings form him in visions even after the master’s death.

Around twenty-eight, he started a three year strict retreat in the caves of Chimphu (1759-62). Here, the revelation of the Longchen Nyingthig cycle occured as well as, teachings of the Dharmakaya and Guru Rinpoche, as mind ter. He had a vision of a wisdom dakini who entrusted him with five rolls of yellow scrolls with seven crystal beads. They contained the Sadhana of Avalokiteshvara and the prophetic guide of Longchen Nyingthig. He swallowed them and instantly their meanings awakened in his mind. Thus he became a terton and gradually started transcribing the Longchen Nyingthig. He invoked Longchenpa through fervent practice of a guru yoga he had composed. Longchenpa appeared in three visions, empowering him with the responsibility of preserving the meaning of his teachings and of spreading them.

In addition to his famous treatise on the Longchen Nyingthig, he collected and republished many Dzogchen texts, including those of Mindroling monastery and the Nyingma Kyujum. He experienced the visions of many lamas including Guru Rinpoche, Yeshe Tsogyal, Manjushrimitra and Humkara. Manjushrimitra gave him blessings, in a vision, which caused him to realize the meaning of symbolic wisdom. After that he changed his maroon monastic robes to the natural garb of an ascetic, uncolored white robes and uncut long hair. Although he was a hidden yogi, the people had great respect and faith in him.

He built a hermitage in Tsering Jong and lived there for most of his life. In 1765 he gave his first empowerments and explanations of the Longchen Nyingthig cycle to fifteen disciples.He took no interest in wealth or power and spent all that was offered to him for religious purposes. He was active in ransoming the lives of animals from the hands of hunters and butchers. At the age of sixty-five he and his consort, Gyalyum Drolkar had a son called Gyalse Nyinche Ozer. Among his chief disciples were the First Dodrupchen, and Jigmed Gyalwe Nyugu.

Gyalse Shenpen Thaye b. 1740

The first Kusho Gemang Rinpoche, one of the three principle masters of the Dzogchen Monastery and founder of the Shri Singha Monastic College. Transmitted Prajnaparamita teachings to Patrul Rinpoche.

First Dodrupchen Jigme Thinle Ozer 1745-1821

A principle holder of the Longchen Nyingthig cycle from Golok, entered Gochen at 14, studied under many Kagyu and Nyingma lamas, did a seven-year retreat before meeting his guru Jigme Lingpa at 41, received complete transmission of kama and terma teachings. Vajra brother of Jigme Nyuku. Once Dodrupchen was visited by Dzogchen Rinpoche, an ordained monk. Unprepared for his guest, he offered beer since that was all he had. Dzogchen Rinpoche drank the beer and attained enlightenment, though he was drunk.

Jigme Gyalwe Nyuku of Dzachukha 1765-1843

One of two masters responsible for spreading the Longchen Nyingthig teachings throughout Tibet. At Samye, Dodrupchen pointed him to his own teacher, Jigme Lingpa. Taught teenager Do Khyentse and later received empowerments in return. His teachings to Patrul Rinpoche became the basis for Kunzang Lama'i Zhal-lung.

Do Khyentse Yeshe Dorje 1800-1866

Mind incarnation of Jigme Lingpa from Golok. One of the greatest siddhas during the last few centuries. Sought out Dodrupchen, his root teacher, while still a year old. Do's sister was his lifelong disciple. By 1820, he would leave his court position and in the presence of Dodrupchen, was blessed to don white robes and grow his hair long. He took a consort, had children, taught, and traveled widely.

Patrul Orgyen Jigme Chokyi Wangpo 1808-1887

One of the greatest teachers of the 19th c. Born in Golok, Kham, very straighforward speech incarnation of Jigme Lingpa, observed the Vinaya, spent his life wandering and teaching in a very direct style. He shunned high monastic office, and was often unrecognized in his travels. Author of "Words of My Perfect Teacher."

1800 – 1900 The Ri-me (non-sectarian) movement develops in eastern Tibet, seeking to reconcile doctrinal differences among the schools, draw attention back to Indian sources and reorient monastic education accordingly. Its proponents, Jamgon Mipham, Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo, Kongtrul Lodro Thaye, and Chogyur Dechen Lingpa assemble thousands of Terma treasure texts from all across Tibet, creating a collection known as the Rinchen Terdzod. Since the 11th century, Terma had been revealed by a long series of Terma Masters blessed by Padmasambhava.

Jamgon Kongtrul LodroThaye 1813-1899

Also called Jamgon Kongtrul the Great. Reincarnation of Vairochana, schooled with Khyentse Wangpo and Patrul. Versatile and prolific scholar, the "Tibetan Leonardo" due to his significant contributions of religion, education, medicine, and politics. In his writing, which spans the entire field of Tibetan learning, he brought together the essence of the great intellectual and contemplative traditions of Tibetan Buddhism. Auspicious connections with Chokgyur Lingpa. Composed five great treasures. He was a disciple of the XIVth Karmapa, an emanation of the Bodhisattva Manjushri, in the direct lineage of Siddha Krishnacharin and an emanation of the Siddha Avadhutipa. His main disciples were Xth Situ, Xth Trungpa, Jamgon Mipham and XVth Karmapa.

Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo 1820-1892

The fifth discoverer-king, the incarnation of Vimalamitra, who studied widely, far beyond sectarian limits, and was known as a great scholar and meditator. Also called Jamyang Kyentse the Great. Born in Derge, Kham, of noble wealth and ancestry to the Dilgo clan, studied at Mindroling and w/ Sakya teachers, an incarnation of Trisong Deutsen and Vimalamitra, a leader in the 19th c. Rimé movement. Pursued study exclusively for 13 years, attended by nearly 150 tutors, he trained in the "ten sciences" and received many transmissions of the Nyingma, Kadampa, Sakya and Kagyu, accomplishing and expounding these many times. Had visions of Chetsun Senge Wangchuk (11-12th c.) an important figure in the Nyingtik lineage. Before dying, gave his last instructions to a dakini, Palgyi Lodro. Later, he recalled this in a vision and received the teaching back from the dakini, bringing out the very important cycle of teachings known as Chetsun Nyingtik. Also served by the blessings of the Great Engineer Thang-tong Gyal-po in revealing the teaching known as Grub-thob-Nying-thig. He passed on all the wealth that came to him in supporting many Dharma activities such as publishing texts, building images and stupas. Since his death there have been various lineages of Khyentse Rinpoche s who are said to be aspects of this original one He compiled the Rinchen Terdzod an anthology of Dzogchen termas which includes the Kha'dro Sangwa Kun'du.

Terchen Chokgyur Dechen Lingpa 1829-1870

Reincarnation of Murub Tsenpo, son of Trisong Deutsan who reappeared 13 times as a terton. Chokgyur was the last of these. As a youth in Kham, he discovered a list of terma and was schooled in the Kagyu tradition, although he was discovering many treasures. Dismissed from the monastery for ecstatic dancing, he stayed in Derge where he was unrecognized, studied with Palpung Situ Rinpoche and became a friend of Kongtrul and through him, Khyentse Wangpo. At age 25, Chokling and Khyentse realized they had discovered identical termas. These three worked closely together. Chokling went on to discover many more termas.

Jamgon Mipham Namgyal Gyatso, Lama Mipham 1846-1912

Born in Kham, great terton, heart student of Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo, systematized sutras and tantras, studied with Rimé masters and contributed to the scholastic and practice-oriented Nyingma renaissance of the 19th century. Argued for a Madhyamika interpretation of the Nyingma teachings, in this respect opposing the tendancy of other Rime teachers such as Jamgon Kongtrul to employ more positive (shentong) phraseology. Among his works: "The Wheel of Analytical Meditation," "The Great Commentary on the Kalachakra," and "The Lamp that Illuminates the Practice of the Miraculous Ju-thig of Existence."

Dudjom Lingpa 1835 -1904

Great terton of the Nub clan who wrote "Buddhahood Without Meditation," a famous discoverer of many concealed teachings or "treasures" (Terma), particularly those related to the practice of Vajrakilaya (Dorje Phurba). It had been Dudjom Lingpa's intention to visit southern Tibet to reveal the sacred land of Pemako, but being unable to do so, he predicted that his successor would be born there and reveal it himself. Thus his subsequent reincarnation as Jigdral Yeshe Dorje, Dudjom Rinpoche.

Jigme Tenpe Nyima 1865 -1926

Born in Golok, son of Dudjom Lingpa, had seven younger brothers, all of whom were famous tulkus; received teachings from Patrul, Khyentse Wangpo, Kongtrul, Mipham and Terton Sogyal .

Shenga, Shenphen Chokyi Nangwa 1871- 1927

Student of Jamgon Mipham, great scholar, Khenpo of Dzogchen Monastery in Kham. Transmitted Prajnaparamita Teachings to Sechen Gyaltsab.

Zechen Gyaltsab Pema Namgyal 1870 –

Great Nyingma master regarded as Jamgon Mipham's unequaled disciple. Transmitted Prajnaparamita teachings to Khenchen Kunzang Palden.